中国式教育没救了?你的思维决定了你的答案

来源:正心正举      日期:2019-08-22     浏览数:7070次
中国式教育没救了?你的思维决定了你的答案

来源:正心正举公众号

文丨月月

不知道从什么时候开始,“中国式教育”成了一个贬义词,一提起它,我们自然而然就会联想到“应试教育”、“打骂教育”、“控制式教育”等等。

我们羡慕国外的“快乐教育”,觉得只有在快乐中成长起来的孩子,身心才更健全;我们也羡慕国外的“素质教育”,觉得孩子只学习而没有其他才能的发展,最终只能沦为考试机器。

难道中国式教育就真的那么失败吗?我们不妨摒弃“外国的月亮比较圆”的想法,换个角度想:中国教育最大的成功在哪里?当我们尝试用“三思”的角度去思考,也许便能放下成见,更客观地看待中国式教育。

01

思辨:应试带来的公平

很多人都在抱怨,中国的教育太应试,我们的孩子高分低能。可我们忘记了一个事实,某种程度上,应试也带来了公平。中国教育最大的成功,在于给国人打开了阶层流动的大门,实现了最大可能的公平。

假如我们放弃应试教育,转而推行全民化的素质教育和宽松教育,结果会是怎样呢?

虽然今天的中国教育依然有很多不公平的因素,但应试教育至少能做到“分数面前人人平等”,若是贸然将高考改成综合素质评比,那么考生还要提供其他证明自身素质的材料,比如发表过的论文、社会实践证明、特长证书、专家学者推荐信等等,这么多的环节,如何能保证其中不作假,确保公平性,这是一大问题。

更严重的是,提升综合素质必然要和烧钱挂钩。有能力的家庭可以让孩子读兴趣班、素质班,带孩子参加各种比赛、拿各种加分奖项,没有能力的家庭培养不起孩子的这些兴趣爱好,拿什么去竞争?

再来看看所谓的“快乐教育”。中国教育被诟病的另一大原因,是因为竞争压力过大,孩子从小就身处于高压的环境中,成长得一点都不快乐。所以近十几年来,“给孩子减负”之类的话不绝于耳。

可是快乐教育、宽松教育就一定是好的吗?未必。今年5月1日,日本平成时代宣告终结。在三十年的平成时代,日本盛行宽松教育,日本政府给孩子大大减负,结果这一代的孩子,却被称为“平成废物”。他们沉迷网络和二次元,对现实漠不关心,信奉“逃避可耻但有用”的价值观,活得没有朝气。

为什么会这样?原因很简单,因为虽然教育减负了,学习的难度降低了,但教育资源依然是有限的。作业少了、学业的负担降低了,可是竞争压力没有降低,孩子想要出人头地,一样还是要去争夺那极为有限的招生名额,一样不快乐。

我还清楚地记得,二十年前我读小学的时候,每天下午五点下课后,经常有老师主动给我们免费补课,一上就上到六点。可是现在,很多小学下午三点半就下课了。这么早放学,家长们大多还没下班,孩子们去哪儿呢?

有能力的父母会送孩子学钢琴、学编程、学奥数、学英语等等;一般家庭会找个寄膳中心负责接送,让孩子在寄膳中心玩一玩,写写作业;至于没钱的家庭,只好让孩子回家,可因为作业很少,很快就能写完,剩下的时间做什么呢?打游戏,刷抖音。

就像白岩松说的那样:“没有高考,你拼得过富二代吗?”作为普通人家的孩子,你是玩不起“减负”的。在快乐教育的体系下,寒门将更难出贵子。

任何硬币都有两面,我们必须辩证看待。中国式教育当然有许多不足的地方,但我们应该用“思辨”的方式看待,不偏颇,不盲目,辩证看待,才能更客观,更深刻。

02

思变:与时俱进的教育理念

当我们用“思变”的眼光去看中国教育,就会发现中国的教育改革从来没有停止,成果也卓有成效。

从教育成就的角度看,1949年中国的小学、初中、高中净入学率分别是20%、3.1%、1.1%,而2018年已经升至99.95%、100.9%、88.8%。“读书能改变命运”、“再穷不能穷教育”的理念,已经深入大部分老百姓的心中。

从教育理念的角度看,十几年前大多数教师的教育方式都是“一言堂”、“满堂灌”、“填鸭式教育”,但近些年来,随着新课标的落地生根,大多数教师的教育理念已经有了明显转变。我们的课堂从“以教师为主导”转变为“以学生为主导”,教师的作用从“主导者”转变成“引导者”。通过提高学生在课堂学习的参与度和主动性,培养学生的发散性思维,就能在一定程度上削弱应试教育对学生创新能力造成的负面影响。

从教育改革的角度看,每一次的高考改革虽然存在许多问题,但如果从发展的角度想,摸着石头过河永远比故步自封、墨守成规强。今年最新的高考改革已经落地生根,中国高考又一次发生了重大变化。从2021年起,普通高考考生文化课总成绩将由“3+1+2”组成。其中“3”指的是语数外;“1”为物理和历史选择一科;“2”为生物、化学、政治、地理中选择两科。

这一改革,打破了传统的文理分科,给学生提供了20多种选科组合,突出了对学生个性的培养,同时也有助于学生把文科的形象思维和理科的逻辑思维相结合,从而培养具有创新思维的人才。

所以,如果我们用静止的眼光看待中国式教育,那么现阶段的教育当然有太多太多问题,和发达国家相比也有很大的距离。但如果从“思变”的角度看,中国教育能在短短70年的时间发生翻天覆地的变化,且始终努力贴近时代、与时俱进,这已经是一个奇迹。

03

思便:中外教育,不能简单地选一否一

所谓“思便”,强调的是整合思维,它要求我们在面对复杂的冲突时,不能简单地选一否一,而要用全局思维去看待。

就拿教育来说,一些人盲目推崇西方教育,对中国教育嗤之以鼻;有的人则盲目信奉国学教育,甚至像孙楠这样的明星,还将孩子送进了没有办学资质的国学学校。无论是哪一种观点,都是一种“选一否一”的片面思维。

但如果我们能用“思便”的方式思考问题,也许能走出一条新的路子。

比如,芬兰的教育特别强调学生的自主性学习,而这一点恰恰是中国学生特别缺少的;比如德国特别重视学生兴趣的培养,而中国的教育在培养学生个性方面还有很大的不足;再如许多发达国家都非常重视提高教师福利待遇,中小学教师属于“中高收入阶层”,而中国教师待遇低、压力大,这也是亟待解决的问题。

学习和吸收西方教育的先进理念,再结合中国国情加以改造,同时与中国优秀的传统文化相结合,择善而从,融会贯通,发展出适合本国国情的教育模式,这是中国教育未来发展的必由之路。

04

拨迷见智 开启自在之门

总而言之,高考当然不是完美的制度,它只是当下最符合中国国情的教育制度。尽量实现教育公平,让寒门子弟也有改变命运的可能,让几乎所有的国人都知道读书的重要性,这难道不是中国教育的成功之处吗?

其实,很多人大肆辱骂中国教育,本质只是在发泄自己的戾气。只有尝试用“三思”客观去看待,我们才有可能找到更好的理念和方法,促进中国教育的更好发展。

·end·

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