家长维权无门,教育加盟还能有多乱?

来源:亿欧网      日期:2019-08-22     浏览数:2361次
家长维权无门,教育加盟还能有多乱?

几乎所有“打算”倒闭的教育加盟机构跑路前都会玩同一个把戏,疯狂营销套卖课程,加收“预付款”,撤手前再圈一把家长的钱。

从2019年上半年爆出的教育机构“跑路”事件来看,“预付款”消费模式依旧是教育加盟最大的问题“重灾区”。在这些“跑路”教育企业中,有的是品牌方总部出了问题,连带加盟商“受害”;有的是个体加盟运营不善,导致家长和品牌商受到波及。

无论是对品牌方还是加盟商来说,教育加盟模式依旧还是问题重重,面临挑战。

加盟还是直营 曾是一个世纪难题

追溯加盟起源,势必要谈到连锁经营。连锁经营诞生于美国,发展至今已经有130多年的曲折历史。世界上第一家近代连锁店是美国“大西洋和太平洋茶叶公司”,曾在19世纪30年代拥有近16000家分店。

在全球经济、科技与文化的不断发展推动下,连锁经营的影响力已从传统餐饮、零售等行业,逐渐落地更多行业并走向全球。其中就包括中国,这样的经营模式在中国发展有20多年,发展至今,连锁经营在中国一般有3种模式:直营连锁、加盟连锁和自愿加盟。在这三种连锁加盟模式中,总公司或品牌方对连锁店的控制权逐步减弱。

从教育行业的发展历史来看,以往从小作坊式的培训机构,发展到大型连锁教育品牌,直营模式还是第一选择。但随着直营模式的逐渐成熟,课程研发、教师培训、运营管理各流程逐渐标准化,机构整体解决方案变得更加成熟且容易复制,加盟就应运而生了。

直营模式虽然更为稳定且可控,但对于品牌的发展而言相对较慢,运营的成本也相对较高。偏重的直营方式,对于刚刚发展不久但又急需树立品牌的小机构来讲,很难在短时间实现快速扩张。另一方面,面对看似既能分摊总部成本、提升利润率,又能快速扩张并带来的品牌增值的隐性价值,加盟模式显得极具吸引力。

2012年左右,教育加盟模式受到市场青睐,迎来高速增长期。大大小小的机构开始通过多种加盟方式疯狂拓展市场,跑马圈地。

即便是坚持直营多年,面对加盟的“诱惑”,新东方也曾做出过尝试。2012年7月,在浑水对新东方的质疑报告中,首当其冲是对其隐瞒特许经营真相的指责。浑水指责新东方在特许加盟这件事上撒谎,即隐瞒了加盟店的存在,并对外宣称全部的650家店都是直营店。

而实际上,在2010财年初,新东方就已经开始尝试一些小型试验的加盟项目,通过“泡泡少儿英语”和“满天星”两个品牌一共招徕21家加盟商。并在截至2011年5月31日的2011财年年报里,丝毫没有向投资者提过此事。

为什么会出现这样的情况?因为加盟背后的风险极大:一是加盟商资质参差不齐,加盟店的成败非常依赖投资者的个人能力,加盟商的成败又非常影响品牌信誉和声望;二是教育行业具有“慢”属性,并不是一个快速投机的生意。大部分小机构甚至是大的品牌方在运营和管理能力的提高速度上,并不能及时跟上快速加盟复制的速度。求速不求质,使众多培训机构服务质量依旧差异很大,且大部分偏低,至此加盟模式逐渐受到“质疑”。

作为一种商业手段,连锁经营在不同的地域、不同的市场环境,不同的发展阶段下,有它自然的扩张规律,所以到目前为止,优劣兼并下,直营还是加盟,依旧是连锁扩张过程中每个企业都要考虑的问题,也是一个两难的选择。

单店加盟为主流 成败看“个人”

毫无疑问的是,快速跑马圈地、提高市场份额、保证品牌影响力、确立领先地位,加盟会是更快且容易的扩张方式。而目前的加盟模式中,又以风险极大的单店加盟为主。

“目前,基本90%以上的加盟模式,都是单店加盟模式,这种加盟模式是一种品牌的合作关系,总部提供人员培训、开业运营与市场支持服务,但这不能保证加盟的成功,加盟者也要努力经营。所以要想成功经营加盟店一方面要看总部支持,另一方面也要看加盟者个人的经营管理”,美华少儿英语王永镇向亿欧教育表示。

从加盟模式的发展来看,单店加盟成为主流也有其历史原因。领教未来创始合伙人郑悦韬向亿欧教育谈到,“教育加盟的发展经历了五个阶段,从完全式整店输出模式,到全托管式整店输出、半托管式整店输出、核心岗位托管式整店输出,再到模式输出式整店输出。可以看到,加盟模式的发展和演变,从早期需要品牌方投入大量人力的模式逐渐变得特别‘省事’。因为加盟的标准化越来越高,体系越来越完整,流程越来越精细,人力运营就自然变得更‘轻’,加盟也朝着更‘轻’的模式发展。”

品牌方的支持力度逐渐变“轻”就意味着加盟的成败越来越依靠投资者个人的能力。单店加盟这种松散的合作关系下,问题不断显现。

第一,品牌方盲目扩张,过分逐利,基础服务不到位,深度服务跟不上。甚至有的品牌方在没有直营店的情况下直接使用加盟模式。以今年上半年跑路的“培正逗点”为例,目前“培正逗点”总部对门店都是采用加盟方式,放弃了早年的直营店模式。

图片来源于培正教育官网

培正逗点此次经营出现危机,正是因为盲目的扩张,想通过抢占市场,打响品牌。据悉,培正逗点不顾地域特点和加盟店实际情况,大范围的加盟扩张和低价策略恶性竞争(低于成本价兜售课程),导致资金链出问题,连带影响多家加盟店。

在南翔、天山、金山等地发生的“爆店”新闻中,有些并不是门店运营不善,而是因为总部确实没有足够的现金流维持员工工资、物业等成本,更无力向加盟商兑现投资回报。

第二,加盟引进门,成败靠个人。即使是加盟模式很成熟,也非常看经营者个人品质。悦宝园的上海北外滩店和青岛李沧店关门事件就可以看出一二。据悉,“悦宝园”北外滩店是一家加盟店,店方由于自身经营不善,在合约期内毫无征兆地突然关门,对家长、对品牌都造成了很恶劣的影响。2018年李沧区的早教中心悦宝园“跑路”情况也极其相似。

在经营能力上,个体经营的天性就是考虑当下经济效益。所以大部分运营者都是更加看重经济利益,忽视服务质量,整体品牌意识不强,缺少长期战略,很容易导致资金链易断、卷钱跑路。有业内人士向亿欧教育谈到,品牌方加盟扩张之路的成败与其对加盟商资质筛选严格与否是成正相关的。

第三,从行业现状来讲,门槛越来越低。教育加盟费用高低和加盟机构的能否做成大概率讲也是相关的,因为加盟费在某种程度上其实是一种筛选机制。目前,偏低的加盟费用,让教育看上去是一件前期投入很小的“生意”。记者曾在加盟网站上看到,现在有很多品牌加盟费用很低,保证金也很低甚至没有。如此低的费用,配套的措施和服务能跟上吗?

图片来源于中国加盟网

连锁经营的出现,曾被认为是零售业的第三次革命。教育加盟起初,也很好地解决了服务品质差异与消费者品牌信赖之间的矛盾,实现了教育服务的重大历史变革。但现在,教育行业的连锁加盟现状也需要出现一次变革了。

加盟求变 自救还有哪些希望

实际上,教育加盟发展一直是摸着石头过河。教育行业加盟和零售业加盟看似相似,其则大不相同,很多地方没有参考意义,而相关配套政策也还在陆续制定和发布中,行业标准还未建立起来。但可以确定的是,“割韭菜”式招商加盟这条路会越走越窄,一个是随着行业越来越透明化,大众会越来越理性,另一方面,针对行业痛点的解决方案在不断推陈出新。

1、内容+双师,细分领域齐齐开花

即使是很成熟的教育品牌也会面临着师资和教学科研跟不上的问题,更别提单店加盟的机构。对于加盟店来说,教师流失,课程更新速度跟不上,是致命的打击。

目前解决这个问题有两个方案,一个是双师课堂,一个是内容提供商。

双师模式是指一些品牌、师资以及教研方面实力较强的机构,将自身资源打包成产品,输出给其他机构或是公立校,收取一揽子服务费用及课程费用。双师模式的优势在于,节约了主讲教师的成本,一定程度上解决了优质师资缺乏的问题。因为对于加盟店来说,师资稳定就意味着生源的稳定。而且,双师模式在某种程度上也加强了品牌方和加盟店的联系。

除此之外,近些年,内容生产机构也越来越多。加盟店需要寻找新类型的课程来延长学生的学习周期,比如3-6岁的孩子在这里学习英语,通过输出数学或其它科目的课程,让孩子继续留在这里上课。加盟运营过程中问题很多,解决方案越来越细化对加盟店来说,也是一个利好。

2、借力区块链,系统化管理指日可待

当加盟店逐渐下沉到三四五线城市,如何进行远程管理,增强品牌方和加盟商之间的连接和沟通成为另一个很大的问题。

依托互联网技术,教育SaaS提出了新的解决方案。目前,很多SaaS企业可以帮助小的教育加盟店从招生、收银、考勤、家校互动、运营、师训、教学等多个环节实现标准化,数据化,线上化服务,成体系让品牌方更加容易管理。

除此之外,我们还能看到很多企业开始逐渐将区块链应用在教育加盟中,用来解决加强加盟商和品牌方的联系。通过“区块链+教育”,搭建一个新的平台,既能让加盟商共享收益,又能做到收益共享的公开透明。

“在加盟时,早前‘松散的合作关系’让双方没有一种共同作战的感觉。如果没有一种公开透明的链接,双方之间的互信关系很容易出现问题。”魔方教育卢宏旭曾对育论场表示,他有次和一个加盟商在决定签约时被要求降低费用,理由是加盟商个人认为在全国代理里面自己的费用是最贵的,一种信任不连接的现象出现了。

卢宏旭认为,“把加盟商全部都上链,上链之后,大家都知道加盟费收了多少钱,新品多少钱,等于公开信任给我们解决非常好。另一方面,记账方式公开便捷之后,对于加盟商的奖励和情况有了即时的反馈,区块链技术也做了一个很好的激励。”

3、批量管理,阻击各自为营

缺乏体系化的管理一直被认为是单店加盟风险极大的一个很重要的原因。除此之外,加盟选址、单品类生涯延伸(如何将学生学习周期提高)也是单店加盟在实际运营过程中普遍面临的问题。

教育综合体似乎能够解决这些问题。目前,教育综合体一般是通过自营、合作、入驻等多种方式,覆盖多个年龄段,将教育、文化、艺术、体育科技等多品类的优质资源聚合,同时辅以其他的周边消费项目。

这种模式的优势在于,一方面,“一站式”的教育加盟模式,可以解决单体教育机构选址成本过高的问题,同时多种优质教育品牌聚集,获客成本有效降低,整合并优化行业资源;另一方面,教育综合体可以统一输出管理服务、弱化各自为营的效能衰减。

4、精细服务,第三方机构崛起

“加盟者年会,其实是很重要的一环,也是很多教育连锁加盟集团最容易忽略的一环。很多时候,由于区域环境和发展阶段不同,加盟商没有办法借鉴总部的经验,但是加盟商与加盟商之间的实操经验和励志故事,却是最值得分享和学习的。”郑悦韬谈到。

这样的年会,加上“加盟政策、选址标准、课程研发、师训体系、开业支持、督导管理、运营系统”一共八大步骤,对于品牌加盟来说,都是缺一不可的。而这也是领教未来选择教育连锁加盟合作品牌的最基础标准,只有具备这些条件才能称得上对教育加盟投资者的最基本的负责。

可以看到,熟悉加盟模式和不同城市区域特点的第三方机构的涌现,正在通过一些体系化的解决方案推动整个行业往好的方向发展。

写在最后

“加盟只是一种模式,有的品牌用的好,有的品牌用的不好。”

郑悦韬向亿欧教育表示,“其实教育品牌加盟模式和加盟校区跑路实际上没有本质的关系。对于品牌商来说,如果运营管理能力能够跟上步伐,有节奏的快速扩张,其实是没有问题的。而对于加盟商来说,脚踏实地做教育,用心把一个属于自己的(加盟)校区做成功的也大有人在。成功总有方法,失败也总有理由,但这个锅不应该由加盟模式来背!”

从直营到加盟再到单店加盟,加盟的门槛变低了。微妙的“命运共同体”,把总部和加盟店连接在一起,但是,独立运营方式不可避免的会出现各种各样的问题,既然打着知名企业的招牌招生办学,就应该对信任品牌的家长负责。虽然说创业有风险,但为风险买单的不应该是家长和孩子。

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专访 | 鼎晖投资侯毅:拐点已至,教育投资回归理性

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