体育老师太卑微?云南中考将体育与语数外并列100分

来源:中国新闻周刊      日期:01-03 11:55     浏览数:9165次
体育老师太卑微?云南中考将体育与语数外并列100分

“下节要考试?”“暂时不考。”“我上。”“好。”

“下午第二节我上,你休息。”“好的。”

“下节我上。”“好的哈。”

前不久,一位体育老师晒出了他与其他任课教师的聊天记录。与抢课同事的口吻相比,被抢课的体育老师倒显得有些客气。一时间,社交网络上掀起了一场“体育老师有多卑微”的热议。

体育课式微,学生、家长早已习以为常。不过,12月30日一项新的中考改革政策刷爆了云南家长的朋友圈——体育与语数外并列100分!

事实上,全国多地已经将体育纳入中考。从今年开始,具有自主招生权的高校在校考中均增设了体育测试,被视为体育进高考的重要信号。

一向“可有可无”的体育老师,其实编制存在大约20万的缺口。

卑微

体育老师,有求必应。本应该是体质最好的那个,却总是无辜“生病”。

每个人的学生时代,大概都会碰到几个“不诚实”的体育老师。数学老师刚刚宣布体育老师胃痛来不了,转眼同学们就看见体育老师在操场上生龙活虎地扔铅球。

在低年级阶段,有些学校还能保证正常教学,但越接近升学季,体育课越容易被一刀切取消。

云南省教育厅2018年对该省16个县的小学四年级和初中八年级的抽查显示,四年级体育开课达标率61.2%,八年级时只有38.7%,而八年级数学周课时已经超过正常课时数的90%。

跟其他任课老师相比,体育老师课业不重,有更多的时间管理班级,似乎很适合当班主任。

可是不久前,浙江杭州一所中学的体育老师主动申请当班主任,结果遭到家长们的质疑。一时间,“体育老师能不能当班主任”引发争论。

一方面体育课不受重视,另一方面近年来体育课成了“高危”课程。10月16日,沈阳一名初三男生在学校组织的体能测试一千米跑途中倒地,送医后宣布不治。

广州市荔湾区教育发展研究院体育教研员车纯指出,课堂上学生有任何的伤害事故,体育老师必须承担责任。目前我国在针对校园伤害事故方面没有切实可依的法规性文件,能够让体育老师在教学、管理没有差错的情况下免于承担责任。

于是,温柔体育课在中学随处可见,被概括为“三无七不”型,指的是“无强度、无难度、无对抗”,以及“不出汗、不脏衣、不喘气、不摔跤、不擦皮、不扭伤、不长跑”。

户外运动的匮乏,加之过重的学业负担,我国儿童青少年近视呈高发和低龄化趋势。国家卫健委公布的2018年全国儿童青少年近视调查结果显示,总体近视率为53.6%。

硬核

面对近30年来我国学生体质健康水平堪忧的状况,社会上屡有将体育纳入中高考的呼声。

12月27日,云南省教育厅发布《关于进一步深化高中阶段学校考试招生制度改革的实施意见》。关注度最高的是体育分值上升,与语文、数学、英语均为100分。这一改革从2020年秋季学期入学的七年级学生起开始实施。

专家指出,在全省范围内把体育“上升”到和语数外一样的地位,分值都为100分,云南还是全国首例。对政策的出台,网友称“体育老师笑了”,“体育老师终于不用‘卑微’地要课了”。

在高考层面,从今年开始,具有自主招生权的高校在校考中均增设了体育测试。

此举被视为释放了一个重要信号,即作为学生综合素质的一个重要方面,体质与运动能力的测评今后有可能被纳入高考。

对于把体育纳入高考这一趋势,21世纪教育研究院副院长熊丙奇告诉中国新闻周刊,“这个要看体育纳入中考的效果。在之前体育分值不高的情况之下,大部分学生最后拿到的分值都差不多,因此并没有真正引起大家对体育的重视。”

在目前中高考的指挥棒下,专家们普遍认为只有强调体育的分数,学校、教师、家长、学生才会真正地重视体育课。

南京理工大学动商研究中心主任王宗平认为,加强学校体育的文件再多,只要高考不考体育,很多学校、老师和家长就不会买体育的账,重视体育只是口头上的。

教育部体育卫生与艺术教育司司长王登峰指出,最关键的,是要把学生参加体育活动情况、学生体质健康状况和运动技能等级纳入学业水平考试和学生综合素质评价体系,如果没有这一条,前面所有努力都可能付诸东流。

窠臼

然而,有担忧的声音认为,将体育纳入中高考必考科目,体育课会不会落入应试教育的窠臼。

为了跑步达标,那就突击训练。要考游泳科目,那就玩命划水。考完了,就丢置一边。结果学生喜欢体育运动,但不喜欢体育课。

更何况,在应试教育的赛道上,学生的负担已经足够沉重,若再加上体育测试,学生的学习负担何时才可能真正地减轻?

还有不少人担心体育考试的公平公正性。一些城市学校建设了较高素质的体育师资队伍,但在广大乡镇与农村地区,体育师资建设仍有很大不足,体育课教学依然较为粗放。

通过考试形式固然能够推动对体育的重视,有助于解决体育教学时间不足的问题,同时专家提醒,应避免把改变升学考试结构变为治标之道。

华东师范大学体育与健康学院教授季浏指出,体育课程异化为体质测试课程的现象,其实是“形式主义”的一种表现,其不仅导致学校体育的目标简单化,而且忽略了学生运动兴趣的培养。

如何从根源上改变体育纳入中高考后的应试教育倾向?熊丙奇跟中国新闻周刊指出两个关键点:第一,依法治教;第二,改革升学评价体系。

依法治教,规定基础教育的学校要五育并举,必须按照法律法规开足所有的教育课程。那么体育课该怎么上,不是说有考试才上,没有考试就不上,而是按照教育教学规律必须上好。

进一步改革我国的升学评价体系,目前来看,其实中高考改革还是科目改革。调整科目调整分值,并没有改革总分录取模式。在总分录取模式之下,基础教育的应试教育格局是无法打破的,还是会存在唯分数论的问题。

体育进中高考是利大于弊还是弊大于利?说到底,体育课并不是可有可无的副课,体育与文化课更不是必然的矛盾。

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