金融为小微企业送上“及时雨”(锐财经·一手抓防疫,一手促发展⑦)

来源:环球网      日期:02-15 09:40     浏览数:1994次
金融为小微企业送上“及时雨”(锐财经·一手抓防疫,一手促发展⑦)

现金流吃紧、短期内贷款偿还能力下降、复工复产伴随更大的融资需求……自新冠肺炎疫情发生以来,成千上万小微企业面临的困难成为社会关注的焦点。小微企业当下面临的这些问题如何解决?银行、金融机构该如何有效帮扶?近期,金融支持政策密集出台,着力增加信贷供给、降低融资成本,同时采取灵活的监管政策,为小微企业送上“及时雨”。

信贷供给再增加

中国小微企业数量大,同时抗风险能力偏弱,成为这次疫情中受影响明显的群体,其中又以种植养殖、批发零售、住宿餐饮、物流运输、文化旅游、制造出口等劳动密集型行业尤为明显。那么,受此影响,小微企业在融资需求上有什么实际困难或新变化?

在2月14日国务院联防联控机制召开的新闻发布会上,银保监会普惠金融部主任李均锋介绍,从调查看,变化主要体现在三个方面:一是现金流吃紧,纾困、救急的贷款需求突出。大量小微企业因疫情停工停产,但仍然需要支付工资、租金等,所以需要应急救急贷款。二是新增信贷需求旺盛。前一段受春节和疫情的影响,企业普遍停工停产,最近一些企业复工复产后对外部的融资需求进一步增加。三是一些企业短期内偿还贷款能力下降,还款压力增加,贷款需要展期、延期,也增加了不良贷款的潜在风险。

针对实际问题,相关部门出台了一系列政策,首先集中在增加小微企业信贷供给上。

一方面增加新增贷款。银保监会明确,银行业小微企业贷款的增速和户数要实现“两增”目标,对五家国有大型银行普惠型小微企业贷款的增速和首贷比例则要求更高一些。同时要求向受疫情影响严重的地区和行业倾斜信贷资源,做到信贷计划和额度早安排、早投放。

另一方面加强受困企业续贷支持。银保监会要求,对疫情前生产经营稳定、财务状况没有异常、信用记录良好的小微企业,由于受疫情影响出现资金暂时困难要做到应贷尽贷。对2020年6月底前到期的小微企业贷款,受疫情影响可能需要延期还款、需要续贷的,银行机构要主动给予一年以内的续贷安排,保证对小微企业资金需求的支持。

融资成本再降低

“增量、扩面、降本、提质”,疫情当前,如何进一步降低小微企业融资成本也成为政策着力改善的方向。

李均锋指出,小微企业客观上风险、成本比较高,受疫情影响,很多企业财务负担进一步加重。2018年和2019年,银保监会已推动银行每年降低小微企业融资成本1个点以上,当下还准备采取一些特殊的政策措施。

从全年看,要推动所有银行业金融机构普惠型小微企业贷款综合融资成本,在前两年降低的基础上力争再降低0.5个百分点以上。同时,对受疫情影响较大地区的小微企业贷款利率,可再适当地下调。目前五家大型银行的贷款利率为4.7%,实际处在非常低的水平,但还要继续发挥带头作用,争取继续加大利率优惠力度。

对受疫情影响,现金流面临困难的企业,银行要和企业合理协商还本付息的方式,避免因贷款逾期产生的罚息等额外成本,让银行和企业共渡难关,同舟共济。鼓励倡导银行进一步践行社会责任,在自身财务可承受的范围内,对受疫情影响比较大的小微企业适当减收一段时间的贷款利息。

相关部门还要求,银行对小微企业贷款只收息、不收费,同时在小微企业贷款中不能再附加其他的条件。“通过这些措施,努力使小微企业融资成本进一步降下来,使银行和企业能够共渡难关,同舟共济。”李均锋说。

监管体现灵活性

那么,受疫情影响,小微企业如期还款确有困难的怎么办?

“在抗击疫情的特殊时期,监管政策必须要体现灵活性和弹性。”李均锋表示,要按照特事特办、急事急办、突破常规、精准施策的原则,鼓励大胆创新。

目前,监管政策上主要有四个方面的考虑——

在贷款分类上,因疫情影响出现贷款逾期的,在一定的延缓期限内还款不计入不良贷款、不影响小微企业信用记录。

允许银行进一步提高不良贷款的容忍度,对受疫情影响比较大的地区和行业的小微企业,不良贷款容忍度可以再提高一些。

进一步落实尽职免责要求,如果有充分证据证明小微企业受疫情影响不能还款的,视为不可抗力,银行对经办人员和相关管理人员应该免予追究责任。

对小微企业受疫情影响导致不良贷款、形成损失的,鼓励银行业金融机构适当地简化内部认定手续,加大自主核销力度。

此前,中国人民银行等部门出台强化金融支持疫情防控的30条政策措施,也对相关情况做出安排。包括:金融机构要灵活调整还款安排,对受疫情影响严重企业到期还款困难的,可予以展期或续贷。对有发展前景但受疫情影响暂遇困难的企业,不得盲目抽贷、断贷、压贷。

“要通过以上这些办法,使大家在特殊时期创新性地进行工作,更好地应对疫情对小微企业信贷的冲击。”李均锋说。

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