大中小学如何开展劳动教育?教育部12问答详解

来源:微言教育      日期:03-26 21:44     浏览数:3466次
大中小学如何开展劳动教育?教育部12问答详解

构建新时代

中国特色社会主义劳动教育体系

近日,中共中央、国务院印发了《关于全面加强新时代大中小学劳动教育的意见》(以下简称《意见》),就全面贯彻党的教育方针,加强大中小学劳动教育进行了系统设计和全面部署。

1.社会各界对新时代劳动教育十分关注,请介绍一下《意见》出台的背景。

答:劳动教育是中国特色社会主义教育制度的重要内容,对于培养社会主义建设者和接班人具有重要战略意义。《意见》出台主要有以下两个方面背景。

一是贯彻落实新时代党对劳动教育的新要求。2018年9月,习近平总书记在全国教育大会上明确提出将劳动教育纳入社会主义建设者和接班人的总体要求,必须构建大中小学劳动教育体系,全面落实党的教育方针。

二是劳动育人功能亟待加强。劳动教育被淡化、弱化,一些青少年中出现不珍惜劳动成果、不想劳动、不会劳动的现象,与社会主义建设者和接班人的培养要求有较大差距。全党全社会必须高度重视,切实加强大中小学劳动教育。

2.新时代加强劳动教育的总体思路是什么?

答:新时代加强劳动教育必须强调以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,落实立德树人根本任务,把劳动教育纳入人才培养全过程,贯通大中小学各学段,贯穿家庭、学校、社会各方面,与德育、智育、体育、美育相结合,把握育人导向,遵循教育规律,创新体制机制,注重教育实效,实现知行合一,促进学生形成正确的世界观、人生观、价值观。

3.《意见》对新时代劳动教育的基本内涵做了怎样的规定,为什么?

答:《意见》明确提出,实施劳动教育的重点是在系统的文化知识学习之外,有目的、有计划地组织学生参加日常生活劳动、生产劳动和服务性劳动,让学生切实经历动手实践,出力流汗,接受锻炼,磨炼意志。将劳动教育与智育区别开,防止用文化课的学习取代劳动教育。

4.新时代劳动教育主要育人目标是什么?

答:针对一些青少年中出现的不珍惜劳动成果、不想劳动、不会劳动的现象,《意见》从思想认识、情感态度、能力习惯三个方面面向全体学生提出了劳动教育目标,突出强调劳动教育的思想性。强调理解和形成马克思主义劳动观,牢固树立劳动最光荣、劳动最崇高、劳动最伟大、劳动最美丽的观念;体会劳动创造美好生活,体认劳动不分贵贱,热爱劳动,尊重普通劳动者,培养勤俭、奋斗、创新、奉献的劳动精神;具备满足生存发展需要的基本劳动能力,形成良好的劳动习惯。

5.大中小学各学段教育,普通教育和职业教育各有特点,请问《意见》在劳动教育课程、时间上是如何规定的?

答:落实劳动教育需要依托课程,必须有一定的时间做保证。在课程设置上,《意见》突出强调“整体优化学校课程设置”,构建劳动教育课程体系,大中小学设立必修课程和劳动周,同时强调其他课程有机融入劳动教育内容和要求。在劳动教育时间上,《意见》主要从两个方面作出规定,一是利用上课的时间进行。中小学劳动教育课每周不少于1课时;职业院校除实习、实训外,专门进行劳动精神、劳模精神、工匠精神专题教育不少于16学时;大学本科阶段不少于32学时。二是在课外校外安排。中小学要对学生每天课外劳动时间作出规定。大中小学每学年设劳动周(高等学校也可安排劳动月),也是在课外集中安排。安排必要的劳动实践,旨在促使学生养成良好的劳动习惯。

6.《意见》为什么突出强调开展日常生活劳动、生产劳动、服务性劳动三类劳动教育?

答:《意见》依据马克思主义劳动观,将劳动分为生产劳动和非生产劳动,相应地将劳动教育分为生产劳动教育和非生产劳动教育。考虑到劳动教育内容的针对性和可行性,《意见》又将非生产劳动教育分为日常生活劳动教育和服务性劳动教育,前者注重在学生个人生活自理中强化劳动自立意识,体验持家之道,这也是学生健康发展、适应社会生活的重要基础;后者具有较强的时代特点,注重利用知识、技能、工具、设备等为他人和社会提供服务,特别是在公益劳动、志愿服务中强化社会责任,培养良好的社会公德,例如:强调高等学校“注重培育公共服务意识,使学生具有面对重大疫情、灾害等危机主动作为的奉献精神”。三类劳动教育内容不同,各学段可以有所侧重,但从总体上看,三者都很重要,不能偏废。

7.如何发挥家庭在劳动教育中的作用?对此,《意见》有哪些具体要求?

答:家长是孩子的第一任老师,家庭是实施劳动教育的重要场所。《意见》从四个方面强调发挥家庭在劳动教育中的基础作用:一是鼓励孩子自觉参与、自己动手、随时随地、坚持不懈地进行劳动,每年掌握1—2项生活技能;二是鼓励孩子利用节假日参加社会劳动;三是树立崇尚劳动的家风,让孩子养成从小爱劳动的习惯;四是学校和社区、妇联等开展学生生活技能展示活动,加强对家庭劳动教育的指导。

8.学校如何发挥在劳动教育中的主导作用?

答:《意见》明确提出学校要切实承担劳动教育的重要责任,主要任务是:第一,开齐开足劳动教育课程,统筹安排课内外劳动实践时间;第二,结合学段特点和所在地区实际,规划好劳动教育课程内容,注重马克思主义劳动观、有关劳动技能的学习;第三,组织实施好劳动周,有序安排学生的集体劳动;第四,加强对劳动教育的研究,不断改进劳动教育方法和组织形式,注重激发学生内在需要和动力,提高教育效果。

9.《意见》对社会各方面提出了哪些要求?

答:劳动教育涉及社会方方面面。为此,《意见》对社会各方面如何加强劳动教育提出了明确要求:一是企业公司、工厂农场等要履行社会责任,开放实践场所,特别是鼓励高新企业为学生体验现代科技条件下劳动实践新形态、新方式提供支持;二是工会、共青团、妇联等群团组织以及公益基金会、社会福利组织要组织动员相关力量,搭建多样化劳动实践平台,注重引导学生参加公益劳动、志愿服务;三是宣传部门要鼓励和支持创作更多以歌颂普通劳动者为主题的优秀作品,广泛宣传辛勤劳动、诚实劳动和创造性劳动的典型人物和事迹。《意见》针对我国新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎防控工作中,各行各业特别是医疗卫生行业劳动者们表现出的无私奉献和大无畏的牺牲精神,突出强调,“注重挖掘在抗疫救灾等重大事件中涌现出来的典型人物和事迹,大力宣传不畏艰难、百折不挠、敢于担当的高尚品格”。《意见》还要求,宣传推广劳动教育的典型经验,营造良好的舆论氛围,特别要旗帜鲜明地反对一切不劳而获、贪图享乐、崇尚暴富的错误观念。

针对劳动教育社会性很强的特点,《意见》特别强调各级政府要加强劳动教育工作的统筹协调,各相关部门要履行自身的劳动教育职责,全社会合力推动劳动教育。

10.劳动教育重在落实,如何发挥评价、监督的促进作用?《意见》在这方面有些什么举措?

答:针对各方面积极性不高、内在动力不足的问题,《意见》侧重从两个方面建立健全劳动教育激励机制:一是健全学生劳动素养评价制度。组织开展劳动技能和劳动成果展示、劳动竞赛等活动,激发学校和学生的积极性。将劳动实践过程和结果纳入学生综合素质评价体系,建立公示、审核制度,确保真实可靠。把劳动素养评价结果作为评优、评先的重要参考和毕业依据,作为高一级学校招生录取的重要参考或依据,使劳动教育评价硬起来。《意见》提出“全面客观记录校内外劳动过程和结果”,强调既要记录结果,也要记录劳动过程中的关键表现,但也不是事事都记。二是加强督导检查和质量评估。把劳动教育纳入教育督导体系,完善督导办法。劳动教育督导结果向社会公开,并作为被督导部门主要负责人考核奖惩的依据。探索建立劳动教育质量监测制度,推动劳动教育过程的反馈和改进。

11.教师很重要,教人者要先受教。在加强劳动教育教师培养和培训方面,教育部门有什么考虑?

答:一是高等学校要加强劳动教育师资培养,有条件的院校开设劳动教育相关专业。有关部门将对劳动教育师资培养进行调研和规划。二是开展全员培训,强化每位教师的劳动意识、劳动观念,提升实施劳动教育的自觉性。三是对担任劳动教育课程的教师进行专项培训,提高劳动教育专业化水平。

12.下一步全面贯彻落实《意见》,教育部有什么打算?

答:教育部将把劳动教育作为今后一段时期内的重点工作来抓。

一是细化顶层设计。依据《意见》,研究制定大中小学劳动教育指导纲要,细化劳动教育目标、内容、途径、方式、评价等,加强对地方和学校实施劳动教育的具体指导和专业支持。

二是加强制度保障。着力推动将劳动教育纳入教育教学体系和人才培养体系中,从课程建设、资源配备、人力保障、管理考核等方面,构建劳动教育长效机制,形成家庭、学校和社会协同实施机制。

三是强化组织领导。在党委统一领导下,各级教育行政部门要明确实施机构和人员职责,并积极争取发展改革、财政、人力资源社会保障、税务等部门以及工会、共青团、妇联等群团组织力量,推动落实好各项改革措施,把劳动教育的目标任务落到实处。

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